Category Archives: Changing World of Work

Reflection On What We Learned So Far

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You might already have noticed, that we asked you to do certain tasks and activities during the different lessons and weeks throughout this course. So, if you were a very studious participant in our course, you might already have some things written down. This last exercise now contains two tasks:

1) Go back to some of your previous contributions and  reflections, and compare them with what you have learned in this week.

  • Write a journal entry reflecting how your previous approaches to reflection worked out. Did you already naturally include your personal experiences? If you use a blog, share it with us with the #EmployIDMOOC hashtag.
  • While writing your past contribution, you might have thought about future actions. Did you also include those plans in your contributions?
  • What is an aspect of reflection that was new to you and on which you now want to put special attention?
  • We also asked you sometimes to specifically help others in your contributions, how did you feel about that?

2) Why delay unnecessarily with starting your personal reflection journal? Grab a notebook and write a short entry reflecting about the question of what memorable good/bad experience you had in the last two weeks.

We will provide you with some writing prompts:

  • What happened?
  • Why was it good/bad in particular?
  • How would you like to deal with this differently in future?

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Pen by Unsplash, cc0

  • Have you already finished your journal entry?

How about setting an appointment in your calendar to write the next journal entry. As reflection is not something you are paid for, it is often something we push back on our calendar. You could even keep your journal with you and make notes during conversations and meetings to help you record your thoughts. Start now and make a habit out of it.

Facilitation and Moderation of Reflection

In this last unit, we talk about how to aid your reflection sessions and how to moderate a group reflection session. While reflection is something that naturally happens, sustaining reflection and leading it to successful outcomes cannot be taken for granted. Instead, there is a need to facilitate individual and group reflection.

To Reflect or Not to Reflect

As we learned in the first unit, reflection is based on personal experiences and is used to learn from it to shape future behaviour. This is very important in order to properly structure your personal reflection and also to help others in their reflection

When talking to others about an issue you have to differentiate between knowledge exchange and experience exchange. Knowledge exchange may create phrases like “having meeting agendas helps to make meetings faster”, from which we cannot understand or make sure whether this knowledge comes personal experiences or whether the person has read or heard this somewhere. It is important to base your reflections on your experiences, as otherwise it would be just thinking about “facts” stated somewhere and by someone. Thus, when you reflect or help others to reflect, keep in mind to focus on personal experiences.

Similarly, if you reflect together with your colleagues and others are trying to help you with an issue, you can differentiate between solutions derived from reflection, meaning from personal experience of that person, or whether the solution is founded or suggested from other sources such as prior knowledge of a person. Focusing on experience in reflection and relating experiences to other experiences can help to uncover new aspects in your personal or professional life.

Which Questions to Ask

When reflecting together with others, you can use question prompts to facilitate the reflection in the group. Questions have been proven to be a mechanism to stimulate reflection (Wood Daudelin 1996), and questions provide the added benefit that you can steer the attention of the recipient to certain aspects.

Questions by geralt (cc0)

Questions by geralt (cc0)

In a reflection session, there are multiple stages linked to the elements of reflection, and we can emphasize on each element with specific questions (Wood Daudelin 1996, pp. 41-42):

  • Analysing the issue:
    • What has happened and what did you expect to happen?
    • Why was that important?
    • Why do you think it happened?
    • Why were you feeling that way?
    • What was the most important aspect?
  • Hypothesis generation:
    • How is this situation similar and different from other problems?
    • How might you do things differently?
    • Who might help you with this?
  • Action stage: Planning outcomes
    • What are the implications of all this for future action?
    • What should you do now?

As you can see, those stages are related to our basic model of reflection from the first unit. This list is by no means complete but rather provides a starting point and you are encouraged to create your own questions during your reflection sessions. Overall, reflection is a process you can use to aid your personal learning, but you are flexible in how you want to approach each reflection session. This list of questions can be also used as a writing stimulus for writing your personal journal entries.

How to Create Learning Outcomes?

Reflection is a great opportunity to learn from experiences, but the questions are often how to create outcomes of the learning or how to sustain the learning?

We learned that reflection is based on experiences, re-evaluating them, and trying to create plans on how to behave differently in future. We suggest some seemingly simple steps that lead to learning outcomes from reflection. As you have learned that in practice reflection, it not as easy as it seems, you can use your choice of tools and techniques to support these steps:

  • First, we advise you to note down what your plans are and how you want to achieve them. This way, you force yourself to spell out your plan rather than just forming a vague plan in your mind.
  • In a second step, often one reflection session is not enough. You might want to reflect a second, third, fourth time about the issue as you might have learned new aspect about the issue in the meantime. For this, you can make use of your reflection journal, in which you can reserve a section in each issue precisely to form a plan on future actions.
  • Then you can follow up on the issue in later journal entries, and continue to learn from your experiences.  This way you can visibly see how you continued to learn about various topics.


Reflective Exercise:

  • Did something unexpected happen in the last two weeks?

Further readings:

Wood Daudelin, Marilyn. “Learning from Experience through Reflection.” Organizational Dynamics 24, no. 3 (1996): 36–48. doi:10.1016/S0090-2616(96)90004-2.

Other Reflective Tools & Techniques

In the last unit, we discussed tools for reflective writing to support your personal reflection efforts. In this chapter, we discuss tools, which aid your reflection efforts by providing triggers for reflection.


E-Portfolios are often used in formal education and describe a storage repository in which you can store all your learning related artefacts from all your learning experiences: lecture materials, notes from learning experiences, test results, feedback from teachers, and your personal journal entries and reflections.

There are multiple advantages of having a personal E-Portfolio. You have an overview over all your learning material and you can use it outside of training experiences to learn continuously. You can use it as a space to store your learning experiences.

It is also a nice opportunity to have look through your personal learning material in order to accidently stumble upon some triggers for reflection, aspects in which you wonder “hey, I experienced that in my job and it was similarly or differently because…”. Those moments are great opportunities to reflect about your practice.

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e-portfolios – image from Pixabay cc0

Picture-based Tools

Researchers have created various picture-based tools, which can be used to guide your reflection. In this section, we present two of them.

Apps such as Penzu ( are Smartphone-Apps which you can use to take pictures of anything: work related events, experiences in your private life, family events, etc. The app then reminds you every few months that this event has happened and shows you the picture. You are free to attach a rating about how you evaluate the experience now, and you can attach text about for this re-evaluation. In this we can see again the main aspects of reflection with returning to past experiences (the picture) and re-evaluating them (stating how you now think about it). The apps work as a journal-keeping app, but can also send you snippets of your older entries to reflect on.

Microsoft SenseCam by Rama (Cc-by-sa-2.0-fr)

Microsoft SenseCam by Rama (Cc-by-sa-2.0-fr)

SenseCam is physical device, which has a camera in it. You hang it around your neck, so that the camera is placed on your chest face forward and it then proceeds to take a picture of your viewpoint every few minutes. In a study, researchers used the device with teachers and tutors so that they can assess what has happened. Participants in the study used the pictures as a trigger for reflection, and discussed what happened in their teaching or tutoring session with colleagues to get feedback. Here the images from SenseCam were a picture-based reflection trigger. If you want to use pictures for your personal reflection, you do not need to buy SenseCam: Many camera apps for mobile can be configured to take pictures every minute, and if you wear your phone around your neck, you can document your day as SenseCam does. Look out for Apps, which can do time lapses or stop-motion recorder as they offer continuous shooting with intervals (e.g. Tina Time-lapse for Android, or Stop Motion Recorder for iOS).

Task-Capturing Tools

Task capturing tools are used to track the time spend on individual tasks. For example, they can capture and log the programs you use on your computer (how often, how long) or the apps you use on your phone. RescueTime is one example for such a tool, and there are many more. After using this kind of tool for a longer while, you can identify how much time you spend on individual tasks. You can reflect on this data how you spend your time and can lead to reflection about how to plan your day if you for example uncover that you spend a lot of time on a specific task each day.

It is important to note that in these cases you do not reflect about the data itself, but on your personal experiences associated with the data.



Reflective Exercise:

  • Have you used other tools which might be also appropriate for reflection?

We’d love to hear your ideas, you can share them via Twitter with #EmployIDMOOC

Further Readings:

Alexiou, Aikaterini, and Fotini Paraskeva. “Enhancing Self-Regulated Learning Skills through the Implementation of an E-Portfolio Tool.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Innovation and Creativity in Education, 2, no. 2 (2010): 3048–54. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.463.

Fleck, Rowanne, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. “Teachers’ and Tutors’ Social Reflection around SenseCam Images.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Collocated Social Practices Surrounding Photos, 67, no. 12 (December 2009): 1024–36. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.09.004.

Reflective Writing: Journals, Diaries and Group Support

After talking about the basic components in the last unit, we will  now have a closer look at writing as a tool to support reflection. Naturally, this method is more suited to reflect after something has happened (reflection-on-action), as one normally does not have enough time (e.g. during a presentation) to sit down for reflective writing. This is also a method which is often used in teacher or nursing education, where learners are explicitly trained in writing a reflective journal. In this section, we show two approaches to reflective writing.


There are several benefits associated with reflective writing (Hiemstra 2001, Moon 2006). Overall, reflective writing helps slowing down the pace, as you need to sit down, collect your thoughts, focus your attention and think about how to write something down. Without the aim to write something down, it is often difficult to find time dedicated to personal reflection about private and professional matters.

It allows personal growth and development through freely writing about e.g. integrating learning content in personal and professional life, re-evaluating situations with clients or friends, etc. While writing about learning content you enhance your sense of ownership of learning, as you work to make the learning content working for you. Writing about those personal matters also enhances your awareness about your thoughts and feelings. It can help with self-discovery as it helps interpreting thoughts and dreams. It aids problem solving as you can image your way through a problem while writing it down. Studies in psychotherapy have shown that writing is beneficial for one’s personal health, which also helps to reduce stress. Reflective writing then also helps to strengthen your ability to reflect as you get better at it by practicing. Writing can be also used to keep track of a project and plan it further.

This does not mean that you are required to write an entire book now, but instead it helps to start with one entry a week (Hartley 1998). After seeing that reflective writing can have multiple benefits, we now have a closer look at the different types of writing.

Reflective Writing

Writing, by Unsplash, cc0Writing by Unsplash, cc0

The next question is often, how to write reflectively. Just writing about a certain topic is not already reflective writing. At first, when you are just reporting about an experience you are performing descriptive writing, which is not yet reflective writing. As we learned in the last unit, reflection consists of the three elements of returning to experiences, analysing them to come up with plans for the future. Therefore, a descriptive part in your writing is necessary to write about experiences.

Only when you also analyse your experience and try to come up with plans for future behaviour you enter reflective writing itself.

You can use the three elements of reflection as a guiding structure to write a single journal entry. You can also use the following writing prompts to structure your journal entry:

  • What do you want to reflect about (e.g. what has happened? What idea do you have?)
  • What do you think about this experience now? What would you like to handle differently?
  • How do you plan to react in future?

More ideas for reflective writing are shown below in the section about how to start writing.

Journals and Diaries

Now, that we know how to write reflectively, we look at two different types of writing down your experiences and reflections: Journals and Diaries.

Diary by Barnaby Dorfman (CC BY 2.0,

Diary by Barnaby Dorfman (CC BY 2.0,

There are different kinds of journals: e.g., learning journals, professional journals, etc. (Hiemstra 2001). Learning Journals are often being used during an education experience, and professional journals can contain personal growth or personal development when starting out in jobs. Both can be used to put learning content into practice, or to also compare experience from practice into context with the learning context. Some of the tasks in this course have been created correspondingly. This is also very helpful for new employees who recently finished vocational training or studies.

Entries in learning journals contain reflections, feelings, or personal opinions from that learning experience. Those entries are often written in a specific structure, which aids the writing and imposes some restrictions on the writing as well. This structure can be given e.g. in learning tasks, or by specific questions, or the journal itself has a template. You do not need to start out with a learning journal focused on a single aspect, but rather a general reflective journal. Journals are often hand written.

On the other side, diaries are not related to specific learning experiences, but rather a format of chronological ordered, but unstructured events, which happened in your life. For this, you can use a blank notebook, but also electronic or audio diaries. If you want to write an electronic diary and share it with others, you can use blogs (web logs) or apps on your smartphone.

In all this, it is important to note that reflective writing is an important step in reflection, but writing alone does not cause changes in your life. You still need to act based on the results of your writing. Coming back to the reflection models in the last unit, we can state that reflective writing is one tool do perform personal reflection, and which can be used to write down personal experiences. The outcome part of putting plans into action is still required.

Using Writing in Group Support

Reflective writing can be used either alone or in a group. The forms of writing described above are at foremost an instrument of personal reflection, but can be also used as a medium in collaborative reflection.

In groups, a journal entry can be exchanged with others. For example, one writer starts writing her thoughts about a topic and then passes her journal entry on to the next person in the group. For this, it is necessary that there is a certain level of trust amongst group members so that people are willing to share their journal entries with each other. This is also used in education settings, where a student shares her reflections with her teacher, so that the teacher can also guide the student’s reflections.

Depending of the willingness of a group at work you can also form a reflection group and exchange reflective journals. One form to do this is called “jotter wallet” (by Longenecker 2002), in which there is a case of index cards and one person starts with noting down ideas and experiences from interesting cases. The wallet holder shares the content in the wallet with the others each week. She then presents a case and poses some questions to guide the discussion about the case. Then the wallet passes to the next person in the group.

Another technique is called “Community reflection” which takes roughly 90 minutes. At first participants are introduced to the process and agree on a set of rules (e.g. not sharing sensitive content with outsiders; not judging each other, etc.). Everybody spends 20 minutes reflecting by themselves using a learning journal or similar. Then there is a session of 50 minutes led by a facilitator and a set of question in which everybody can participate with their personal reflections. At the end, everybody can also make comments on how they perceived the entire session in a brief summary.

Another form of reflective writing can be found in (virtual) communities of practice in which you can pose questions and help others. Communities of practice are groups of people who share the same practice in the same domain (e.g. working as a nurse, or working as a counsellor for unemployed job seekers, etc.). Those groups are often connected to each other at the workplace, or through portals on the internet. The latter is often described as a virtual community, as members often do not know each other and member’s locations can span multiple countries and time zones. Communities of practice can be used to reflectively analyse a problem and obtain help from others. In case one does not fully trust everybody else in the community, some community platforms allow also for anonymous contributions, which sometimes make it easier to share personal thoughts about a topic.

How to start reflective writing

Starting a journal or a journal entry is often difficult when you are sitting in front of a blank page of your notebook or have a blank screen on your computer and need to type in the first words. In this section, we present some guiding principles and aspects, which you can use to start writing.

When setting up a journal, take some time to define what you intend to reflect about, e.g. whether the journal aims at your private or your personal life. Then it might be easier to start, if you already know a few topics you want to write about. If you define for yourself with whom you might want to share the journal, it might be easier to start. If you do not want to share it, that´s fine too. In addition, you do not need to think about a proper length of journal entries. Some topics are naturally easier to write up and other more complex topics might need more time and space of writing to develop a clear idea of what the issue might be and how to proceed in future. In education settings, it is recommended to write approximately once a week to get a habit of writing.

Literature (Moon 2006, pp. 102-103) also shows some brief guidelines on how to start a journal (from Walker 1985, Gibbs 1988):

  • Make it your own: Your journal is primarily for you and not for someone else. Thus, create it towards your specific needs and not some needs someone else might have. Do not overthink the first entry; your journal can evolve over time as your personal style of reflection develops and changes.
  • Be honest: Be honest with yourself in your entries. The purpose of reflection is to critically rethink experiences, so there is no need to lie to yourself.
  • Let words flow: Just start with writing, and start with what comes to mind regarding the topic at first. Over time, you might approach some topics more structured, but your journal entries do not need to be perfect from the start and you can flexibly adapt them in future.
  • Use your own words: Use the language you understand best, as the journal is for you specifically. This way the entries might be also easier to write, and easier to think through.
  • Dig deeper: Do not stop at simply writing down experiences, which is more descriptive than reflective writing, but create also a habit of thinking about what to do differently in future in order to learn from it. Challenge your own previous assumptions about the topics you write.
  • Seek help if necessary: You can ask others who are also using journals for reflection about some tips. In addition, if you are part of a learning experience you might ask your teacher about some tips for reflective journals (and check out the reading materials below).
  • Be selective: Studies have shown that some people write a lot more that they would´ve really needed. Therefore, you might need not to note down everything, but can rather think about what belongs to the topic and what does not.

Although there are many smartphone apps out there allowing you to write diaries and journals, we encourage you to keep a hand-written journal instead. In comparison to an app, you are freer to do what you want in a journal (drawing, changing your personal layout of individual entries, having longer and shorter entries etc.).



Reflective Exercise:

  • What are topics, you think most about and which you would like to start a reflective journal or diary about?
  • How could you use the techniques discussed in this unit in your everyday practice? Do you think it would be a useful technique for customers, clients and colleagues?

Further Readings:

Moon, Jennifer A. Learning Journals: A Handbook for Reflective Practice and Professional Development. Routledge, 2006.

Hiemstra, Roger. “Uses and Benefits of Journal Writing.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 2001, no. 90 (June 1, 2001): 19–26. doi:10.1002/ace.17.

Wenger, Etienne. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Wood Daudelin, Marilyn. “Learning from Experience through Reflection.” Organizational Dynamics 24, no. 3 (1996): 36–48. doi:10.1016/S0090-2616(96)90004-2.

Reflection Tools & Techniques

People often have a natural feeling of what reflection might encompass. In this section, we want to talk about what reflection is and what components are necessary for you in order to “reflect”. This is not supposed to imply, that previous reflections were wrong, but rather should help you to utilize fully the process of reflection.

Reflection itself is a form of learning from experiences, which is often used unintentionally by people but can be also used actively and on purpose. When we talk about reflection, we differentiate between three different components as shown in the figure below.

Reflection Cycle by David Boud (1985)

Reflection Cycle by David Boud (1985)

The reflective process starts in the middle of the picture in the reflective process. A trigger for reflection is mostly a perceived discrepancy between what you expected and what you experienced. Then you return to that experience to analyse it, and to re-evaluate it with your current knowledge and experience. The goal is to come up with an idea or plan how to improve on the topic in future, and ideally to take first steps.

To give you an example: Imagine you need to give a presentation about a new topic at work to your boss and you think that you might perform horribly. After the presentation, your boss compliments you on your presentation and you are left wondering why. Here we can see you observed a discrepancy between what you expected (something bad) and what you experienced (something good).

  • When you uncover this discrepancy, you can sit down to reflect (reflective process).
  • While most people often think of negative example for reflection triggers (presentations gone bad, failed at an exam, arguments with a client, etc.) those triggers do not need to be negative, and you can reflect about things, which turned out to be better than you expected.
  • In those situations, you want to focus on sustaining your success also in future situations. In this example, you then think about the presentation and your boss liked it.(returning to the experience). When reevaluating it, you might uncover, that you were prepared for all questions your boss had (reflective process).
  • After identifying a possible reason, you note to yourself that for future presentations you need to engage in a careful preparation so that you can answer all questions (outcomes).

This was a simple example showing how to learn reflectively from a positive experience in order to have similar positive experiences in future. Although the example is quite simple, in reality, there may be more cycles involved between the reflective process and your experiences as it might be harder to figure out possible reasons for why something happened or how to improve on something.

So, where and why should you reflect? Reflection is a technique, which can help you in both your private as well as your professional life. It can help you actively engage with a period of change in your environment (e.g. family, location, and work place), dealing with a high caseload, venting or thinking about new ideas. Often reflection is related to informal learning, meaning that it happens outside of structured learning experiences (e.g. vocational trainings). Some teachers are also including reflection in training experiences and plan learning material around it.

We differentiate the timeliness of the reflection session in relation to the point of time in which the action happened. In most occurrences people start reflecting after something has happened and they start to analyse why something did not go as they expected. This is called reflection-on-action by Donald Schön (1983), which only occurs after the action has finished. On the other side, there is reflection-in-action, which describes that someone starts reflecting during the current activity to analyse whether current actions are appropriately or whether something needs to be changed. Reflection-in-action is more difficult to perform, as one needs to find time to reflect about the situations and still continue, but helps to adapt your activity while you are carrying it out.

By now, you probably still think about why the previous example only included you and not your friends and colleagues. We differentiate between individual reflection, in which you just reflect for yourself, and collaborative reflection, in which you can reflect individually on some parts, but also together with your friends or colleagues. The basic idea of learning from experience remains the same. In an extended model, we can see how the group aspect unfolds. Two additional dotted lines symbolize that you can integrate a group of friends or colleagues to help you reflecting. In this picture, the labelling hints at integrating your reflection efforts into your work environment. In order to reflect together with your colleagues, you need to share some of your experiences so that your colleagues know what has happened in order to discuss possible outcomes. Having a shared understanding of the case is required to discuss it and to derive outcomes. Deriving outcomes can also be performed in a group.

Extended Model for collaborative reflection by Michael Prilla © (

Extended Model for collaborative reflection by Michael Prilla ©

To conclude this unit, we can summarize reflection as a method to learn from experiences. In this you return to experiences, re-evaluate them in order to come up with ideas on how to behave in future. This can of course be done alone, or together with your colleagues, friends and family.



Reflective Exercise:

  • What topics do you deliberately reflect about?
  • What was the last experience you reflected together with a colleague or friend?
  • How does this information about reflection help you?


Further Readings:

Kolb, David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Schön, Donald A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books, 1983.

Prilla, Michael. “Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task.” ECIS 2014 Proceedings, June 7, 2014.

Prilla, Michael, and Bettina Renner. “Supporting Collaborative Reflection at Work: A Comparative Case Analysis.” In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Group Work (GROUP 2014). ACM, 2014.

LMI Reflection

Using a journal or your own blog write down some answers to the following reflection questions. You could share your ideas with us via Twitter using #EmployIDMOOC

  • How can LMI be used in your personal context?
  • Is there another data driven approach in your context (or something you would like to have)?
  • How does it benefit your job?
  • How could you personally use these kind of tools in your job?

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Why is LMI important?

Where can we find LMI?

Using LMI in Practice


Using LMI in practice

Using LMI in practice

High quality, reliable and up-to-date LMI is essential for effective career and employment practice. When giving LMI effectively, there are a number of processes that practitioners typically need to go through. For example, they need to:

  • Identify (what’s required?)
  • Retrieve (which sources?)
  • Interpret (making sense?)
  • Disseminate (who is the target audience?)
  • Mediate (what does it mean?)

We also need to remember that there is such a thing as ‘too much’ information, if delivered all at once!

The following video summarises findings from research into the type of LMI both practitioners and their clients/customers, find most and least, useful. It then starts to identify how to use LMI effectively in your practice.
The video refers to how giving information as part of a career or employment intervention requires high level challenging skills, as you will often be challenging misconceptions and/or misunderstandings held by your client/customer. The difficulty of giving LMI skilfully to clients/customers is often underestimated. Below are some tips for the effective delivery of LMI, some traps to avoid falling into, together with a reminder of the principles underlying the effective use of LMI in practice.

Ten top tips for LMI delivery

When you give LMI to your clients/customers research tells us ways of using information to achieve the greatest impact.

  1. Resist the temptation to ‘jump in and tell’, because you know the answer; it can result in a monologue.
  2. Clarity – use short words and sentences, avoid jargon.
  3. Check understanding, repeat information and give illustrative examples.
  4. Be specific and detailed where appropriate.
  5. Establish connections between situations and the information, using imagery and analogies.
  6. Be positive, suggest what to do rather than what not to do.
  7. Summarise and pause.
  8. Vary your presentation and tone of voice
  9. Provide written back up to emphasise key points.
  10. You don’t know? It’s best to be honest!  If complex, find out for them; if not, support them to find out for themselves.

What to avoid

  • A list of web addresses is not a good way to deliver information – focus on one or two, and be clear about what they can provide.
  • Never recommend sites that you are not familiar with, or if you do, offer a health warning.
  • Never assume IT skills or knowledge of using the internet, always check.

If you can, guide them through any recommended website, pointing out relevant sections, since not all resources are user friendly.

If you are with a client/ customer, let them take the mobile phone (if you are using an app) or mouse and let them do the clicking where possible.

Provide, if appropriate, reminder notes they can refer to later.

Summary of principles underlying the effective use of LMI in practice:

  1. Ensure the client/ customer wants and is ready to receive it!
  2. Help individuals relate their information to their own situation (that is, make meaning of the LMI).
  3. Check they have understood, accurately.
  4. Make sure it is appropriate for the ability level and age.
  5. Ensure the LMI is reliable, up-to-date and impartial.
  6. Demonstrate respect and a genuine desire to help.

LMI: matching people to jobs?

The way that you give LMI as part of an employment or career intervention (interview or group work) will indicate how you, as practitioner, believe human behaviour is influenced and/or changed. Traditionally, career or employment decision-making has been regarded as a rational, linear process, involving a three stage process:

  1. Information gathering;
  2. Analysis;
  3. Making a choice.

That is, the ‘matching approach’  to career guidance and employment practice.

How does it work?

The matching approach to career and employment practice comes from differential psychology. It assumes that the provision of information (including LMI) changes people’s behaviour in a rationale way. So LMI will be given directly to clients/customers by practitioners during a career or employment interview, or group work (for example, information about deadlines for a course or a job), together with the meaning interpreted by the practitioner (that is, if you don’t meet this deadline, you will not be considered for the job or the course), with the intention  of changing behaviour (that is, to motivate clients  to adhere to this deadline).

  • Does this always happen in your practice?
  • Do clients/customers always do what the LMI suggests they should do?  

Most practitioners recognise that their clients/customers do not always behave ‘rationally’ in the way they might expect when given LMI, for a whole range of reasons – some of which may be out of their control.

If we accept that not everyone always behaves rationally, then we need to start questioning how sensible it is to give LMI in the way that this ‘matching’ model of human behaviour suggests.

Despite shortcomings, this approach to matching people with jobs has dominated the policy and practice landscape for over a hundred year (for example, think about the policy rhetoric in many countries around the urgent need to close the ‘skills gap’ by ‘matching’ employment opportunties to individual skill profiles/assessments). However, with the rapidly changing labour market with which we are currently dealing, criticisms are growing regarding to the usefulness of such a model for practice, that was developed in a very different labour market, over 100 years ago.  Matching, for example assumes stability in the labour market, where there is now none! It has been argued that ‘Trying to place an evolving person into the changing work environment … is like trying to hit a butterfly with a boomerang’ (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996, p.263).Image titleSo what are the alternatives? A number of approaches to career and employment practice provide an alternative way to thinking about how to use LMI in your practice. The powerpoint that follows takes you through six different approaches to using LMI in your practice.

(adapted from: Walsh, B. W., 1990). A summary and integration of career counseling approaches. In B.W. Walsh & H. Osipow (eds.) Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology. Hove & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Applying theory to practice

Case study: Jo

Jo - engineering technician

Jo is an electronic engineering technician who is unemployed and having difficulty finding a job in her local area. She has already checked out the local job websites and newspapers for any current job vacancies posted for electronic engineering technicians. Although Jo would like to stay in her local area, she is willing to travel to find work.

  • What LMI might help Jo?
  • What sources might be relevant?

Jo might want LMI to help her:

Find out which employers have hired electronic engineering technicians in the past in her local community. This way Jo can make sure she has exhausted the opportunities in the local area. If she decides that it is time to expand the area for her job search, she might want to put together a list of potential employers in the area that she is willing to re-locate to.

Find out where electronic engineering technicians are in demand, and what the current wage rate for electronic engineering technicians is in the area she is considering relocating to. Think about whether her skills are really up to date – or does she need some top up training? Anything else?

What does all this LMI mean for her?

Of course, armed with all of this, arises the ‘so-what’ factor! Jo will probably want to talk to someone. She may still have questions, and may end up coming to you for help. What topics and issues will you be prepared to discuss, and the other resources you might you use will largely depend on the theoretical framework informing your practice. What will this be? Will the focus be on LMI, or will it be about job search techniques, marketing herself, transferable skills, identifying the hidden jobmarket, decision making?


Reflective Activity:

  • Have you advanced your understanding of LMI.
  • Do you feel more confident in dealing with data and / or using data in your daily practice?

Why is LMI important?

Where can we find LMI?

Using LMI in Practice


Where can we find LMI?

What kind of LMI is available? 

As we noted in Unit 1, different career and employment stakeholders (that is, practitioners, managers, educators, researchers, policy makers, funders etc.) will want different LMI for different purposes (for example, for use with clients / customers at different stages of their careers; to inform policy; to devise courses and curricula; for use with parents or carers, etc.). We reviewed different types of LMI and their sources (that is, hard LMI and soft LMI, information compared with intelligence). Here, we look in more detail at potential sources of LMI, consider limitations and review how we can make choices between different sources and make sense of the data available. We will also examine some of the myths and misunderstandings that can arise around LMI.

When reviewing different sources of LMI, we need to be  mindful of who collated them (that is, what methods of data collection were used) and for what purpose (for example, to inform government policy, to guide resource allocation, to support individuals in labour market transitions).

Official data sources

1. Official statistical agencies

Official national and regional statistical agencies are a major source of ‘official’ LMI for career and employment practice.

What agencies in your country are viewed as official sources of LMI?

Taking one country example, the UK, the Office of National Statistics (ONS) collects data relating, for example, to the overall numbers employed and unemployed in the population; average pay levels in different occupations; and on the numbers employed in different occupations. Data relating to occupations are collected as part of the Labour Force Survey, a subset of which is included in the European Labour Force Survey, compiled by Eurostat.Some of the data. for instance unemployment rates in different european countries, can be acced through the Eurostat visualisation tools.

Different data sets can be downloaded in spreadsheet format from the ONS web site ( One problem for career and employment professionals is that it is very hard to make sense of large spreadsheets. ONS publish summary reports, but these are more geared to economic reporting for policy purposes than the type of LMI at which that we are looking.

ONS, in common with other statistical agencies, are increasingly providing access to data through tools that help users to visualise the data (that is, through graphs and charts). Although of only limited use for occupations, ONS Neighbourhood Statistics provides a visual overview of local communities and economies based on statistics. NOMIS also offers local labour market profiles, drawn from a range of indicators (see Figure 1, below).

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Figure 1: NOMIS Labour Market Profile

Statistical agencies are not the only source of official data.

  • Organisations responsible for education and training (for example, universities and other education/training  organisations) often publish their own data.
  • Local governments may publish other types of data, for instance on travel-to-work times and distances involved.
  • Additionally, labour market ministries and agencies within each country are likely to collect data about skills   shortages and projections of future employment by occupation.

There may be the problem of accessing these official data because of the structure / form in which they are being published (that is, for particular audiences, like policy makers), with different datasets sometimes linked together. But with the move towards ‘open data’, different agencies and organisations are starting to produce their own data portals, especially on a regional or city level. With fast growing research and development around big data, together with the use of cloud computing, access to graphical interfaces and visualisations is becoming more common.

Image title                          Source: Open Data Institute

National censuses are another rich source of LMI. However, they are usually only undertaken on a periodic basis (in the UK, every 10 years, so 2020 is the year of the next census) and the lead time until the data is published can reduce the value for using in employment or careers practice.

Other organisations, like the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) collect data on a European level (e.g. skills forecasting).

2. Data Tools

Once more from the UK, the Department for Education has funded the development of ‘LMI for All’, an online data portal, which connects and standardises existing sources of high quality, reliable, up-to-date labour market information (LMI) for the purpose of informing careers decisions. This data is made freely available via an Application Programming Interface (API) for use in websites and applications. The portal makes data available and encourages open use by applications and websites that can bring the data to life for a range of audiences.

LMI for All is an open data project, which is supporting the wider UK government agenda to encourage use and re-use of government data sets. Tools built on top of LMI for All provide an easy way of accessing and querying a range of different labour market data. One of the tools, developed by the LMI for All team, is a widget called a Careerometer allowing the comparison of different occupations (see Figure 2, below). You can try out the widget for yourself on the Careerometer page of the LMI for All website.

Image titleFigure 2: Careerometer 

Other data sources

1. Sector organisations

Sector organisations, at national and regional level, often have their own researchers and can provide a rich source of LMI. However, whilst in some countries this LMI may be standardised in other countries, such as the UK, the structures of sector organisations differ and the LMI published is not standardised.

2. Educational and training organisations

Education and training organisations provide data on courses and agencies such as the UK Skills Funding Agency and the Higher Education Statistical Agency may provide access to aggregated data. Issues can include non-standardised data and the lack of aggregated data. Another issue for making sense of LMI is how easy it is to link information about courses to information about occupations.

3. Newspapers

Local newspapers, both printed and online, offer access to local LMI which may be hard to find elsewhere. Often, they carry job advertisements, which depending on national regulations, may not be available through government job portals. Newspapers can also be a useful source of data about future developments in local labour markets, for instance planned new factories and enterprises or skills shortages.

4. Trade unions

Most major trade unions have their own research departments and often publish detailed analysis of economic and employment developments in different sectors.

5. People

People are perhaps the most undervalued source of LMI, especially when it comes to Labour Market Intelligence. In all our research with Public Employment and career guidance and counselling professionals we have always been impressed by how much they know about local labour markets. The challenge is to find mechanisms for sharing that knowledge with others.

What are the limitations?

There are several issues to bear in mind, when using different data sources. Important issues, discussed further in the video below, include:

  • Provenance of data

Keep in mind information on how the data were collected (i.e. methodology) and why it was collected.  This includes the coverage of the data and when it was collected. This will enable an initial assessment as to the likely reliability of the data, and an initial assessment about its robustness.

  • Classifications systems

Data are classified in different ways. In the UK, they are classified both by Standard Occupational Classification and Standard Industrial Classification. Although similar terminology may appear in datasets from other countries, this does not necessarily mean that the classifications systems are the same.

Classification systems may become outdated as industries and occupations change as statisticians are reluctant to change due to ‘breaking’ continuity with data collected earlier.

  • Boundary and geography

Boundaries can change over time. Also, the names of places may not have consistent boundaries between different surveys. A further complication is that sometimes data are provided based on where people live, and sometimes on their place of work.

  • Survey non-response

In any data based on a survey it is important to consider the possibility of any potential bias caused by non-response, together with the impact of such non-response for the robustness and quality of the data.

  • Alternative Information sources

In order to answer a particular question or examine specific topic of interest, there may be a number of different data sources to which a career or employment professional  can turn.  While in some instances the sources will ‘tell the same story’, in other instances the details/ trends may be contradictory.  This may arise because different methodologies were used to collect information, coverage may vary, the concepts may be defined differently, different classification systems may have been used, the time period to which the information refers may be different, or the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used in manipulation of data may vary.  If ‘the stories are different’ it does not necessarily mean that one source is ‘right’ and the other ‘wrong’, or that one source is ‘better’ than the other is.  It probably means that further investigation may be necessary to try and find reasons for the differences.

How do you choose between sources of LMI?

Given the range of sources from which LMI is available, career and employment practitioners need to be able to make their own judgements about the criteria they should use to choose between sources. The video above presents checklists of what you should be looking for.

A practitioner guide to the efficacy and quality of LMI

In unit 1 we talked about the difference between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ information, as well as making the distinction between Labour Market information and intelligence.

The table below presents a checklist to guide a practitioner in assessing the efficacy and quality of LMI.

Checklist for choosing between sources of LMI

Who has produced the LMI?

Think about:

  • Whether the source of LMI can be regarded as trustworthy
  • What are the aims and objectives of the organisation producing the LMI?  Is it promotional (putting a positive spin on particular facts) or excluding facts?
  • Whether you have been able to get similar data from more than one source – as this will help you achieve a more balanced and reliable view on of a particular situation
How was the LMI collected?

Think about:

  • How and why data were collected? (i.e. methodology)
  • What is the coverage and degree of detail available?
  • Is the data presented reliability?
  • How valid is the data?
How is the LMI data disaggregated and classified?

Think about the:

  • Relevance and appropriateness of units of measurement
  • Disaggregation of data, particularly geographical boundaries
  • Classification systems applied
  • Comparability of data and consistency over time
  • Analysis in terms of your needs; and
  • Relevance to the area in which you are operating
Is the LMI up-to-date?

Think about:

  • When was the research carried out?
  • What period does the data relate to?
  • When was the LMI published?
  • Potential currency and usefulness of data to current situations
  • Timeliness
  • Frequency of update (and when the next data will be available); and
  • Where there is any more recent research that either supports or contradicts the data?
Is the LMI fit for purpose?

Think about the:

  • Relevancy to service needs
  • Aspirational attributes of LMI
  • Accessibility of language (i.e. jargon-free)
  • Length and presentation of data
  • Balance of data, charts and explanatory text; and
  • Whether the data is presented in different formats (i.e. textual and graphical)


Think of a source of LMI, either from your own practice, or from one of the different sources discussed earlier in this unit.

  • Use the criteria presented in the table above to assess the provenance and value of these data for use in your practice.

Misunderstandings about Labour Market Information

Interpreting Labour Market Information is not straightforward. It is easy to slip into traps when trying to make sense of data. Here, we provide illustrations of common misunderstandings that can arise when interpreting LMI.

Replacement demand

News media frequently report stories about the rosy future for jobs in new and vibrant sectors, like bio-technology or robotics. On the other hand, jobs in areas like mechanical engineering are seen as part of the old industrial technology and in decline. Whilst true at a superficial level, this may conceal reality in terms of future employment prospects.

At one time, engineering, in all braches, employed something like 5.5 million people in the UK, while biotechnology, although a fast-growing business, only employed around 21,000.

To a great extent, future job opportunities depend on replacement demand – the number of people leaving an occupation and thus creating a vacancy. Replacement demand can arise because of the age structure of an industry. Workers in engineering are older than in biotech (which has tended to employ young graduates) and therefore replacement demand is likely to be higher as a percentage of those employed. Of course, retirement is not the only factor influencing replacement demand. Other factors include the attractiveness of the job, the level of pay and the availability of other options.

Skill shortages           

Skill shortages are another topic frequently in the news. The reasons for skill shortages are complex and are not just an issue of shortage of skills, but a mismatch between available jobs and the expertise/training in the labour force.

The UK Employer Skill survey (ESS) indicated that in 2013, some 15% of employers reported that they had employees with skill gaps, equivalent to 1.4 million staff or 5% of the workforce. At the same time, a large proportion of employers felt that they underutilise their workers’ skills, with 4.3 million people (16% of the workforce) over-skilled or over-qualified for their current roles.

Of course, skills shortages may also be just due to lack of opportunity for progression, poor pay and poor working conditions, for instance in the agricultural industry. And in big cities like London, skills shortages may be aggravated by a mismatch between the pay level in an occupation and the cost of living, including housing and transport.

Countries, regions, cities and towns

One problem with much LMI is that it is not disaggregated sufficiently to a local level, mainly due to sample sizes. Yet opportunities in different occupations can vary greatly from region to region and even for different towns within a region. Media is a fast-growing industry in the UK. Yet a close examination at LMI for this sector reveals that it is heavily clustered, with employment concentrated in a few cities such as London, Cardiff, Brighton and Manchester.

Even in an occupation with widespread demand, such as construction, job opportunities can vary greatly between regions, influenced by the vibrancy of local economies and distribution of major construction projects.

Misleading graphics

Graphics are frequently misleading and require careful interpretation. Many of the problems are caused by the spacing and scaling on the X and Y axis. Take the following example from the (now updated) version 1 of LMI for All Careerometer widget.

Misleading visualisations

Figure 3: Misleading visualisations.

On first appearance employment for mechanical engineers is increasing steadily, while employment for vehicle techncians is falling fast. On closer observation, the starting point for number employed on the left hand axis are greatly different and despite these trends there will still be demand for nearly double the number of vehicle techncians than mechanical engineers in 2023.

Beware of averages

LMI frequently relies on average numbers, for instance, when looking at typical pay rates in an occupation. But there are different measures of ‘average’ including mean and median. Frequently, what is referred to as average is the mean, the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. In contrast, the median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, from the lower half. In simple terms, it may be thought of as the “middle” value of a data set. For example, in the data set {1, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9}, the median is 6, the fourth number in the sample.

The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by extremely large or small values, and so it may give a better idea of a ‘typical’ value. For example, in understanding statistics like pay in a skilled job, which varies greatly, a mean may be skewed by a small number of extremely high or low values. Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest what a ‘typical’ income is. Where available, decile values which reveal the distribution in a statically set, can provide a much greater understanding.

Once more looking at pay, wage rates in the UK vary greatly between different regions.


More resources:

Gender pay gap: Edition of the BBC radio programme, More or Less, on the Gender Pay Gap.

Detailed checklist (download hand out 1) which can be used as a self-assessment tool to gauge compliance and identify areas for development with LMI.

Detailed hand out (download handout 2) on issues with LMI data.

Why is LMI important?

Where can we find LMI?

Using LMI in Practice


Why is LMI important?

What do we need to know about Labour Market Information (LMI)?


Think about your skills and confidence in:

  • Explaining the importance of LMI in your practice.
  • Outlining current changes in the labour market and future trends.
  • Explaining the theory underpinning information giving and the implications for practice.
  • Finding, assessing and using sources of LMI.
  • Undertaking employer visits and/or speaking with employers or education/training providers.
  • Delivering LMI learning (as part of group work and/or careers education).
  • Researching and creating bespoke, individualised LMI for clients, colleagues, parents and/or carers, etc.
  • Understanding issues of equality and diversity, as illustrated by LMI.
  • Keeping skills of information giving and knowledge about LMI up-to-date.


What is Labour Market Information?

Labour Market Information (LMI) takes several different forms:

  • ‘Hard LMI’ typically refers to data gathered by labour market and employer surveys, which are conducted on a geographic and / or sector basis to provide a statistical picture of current and likely future employment and     skills trends.
  • ‘Soft LMI’, in contrast, refers to information from a range of sources, like meetings with employers, feedback   from customers and media screening.

Both these types of information help career and employment professionals work effectively with their clients / customers. However, it has most impact when turned into labour market intelligence, through analysis and interpretation. This is what most career and employment professionals are using.

Video: What is LMI?  Watch this short video presentation (which explores different forms of labour market data) 

Why is Labour Market Information important?

LMI is pivotal to effective practice, since high quality, impartial, current, expert knowledge about the labour market distinguishes career and employment guidance and counselling from other types of helping.

Image title

A career or employent practitioner relies on LMI every time they interact with someone seeking help. Clients / customers ask you, for example, about course choice, self employment, how much money they could they earn in a particular job, where the local job vacancies are located, what will the ‘hot jobs’ be when they leave education? None of these questions or issues could begin to be addressed without LMI. LMI demystifies the world of work and helps individuals realise their goals.

So, LMI provides the knowledge & understanding of how the labour market functions and is crucial for ‘making sense’ of changing economic circumstances, including reflecting upon what the future holds.

Who uses Labour Market information and what for?

LMI is used by a wide range of people. Most importantly, clients/ customers need access to high quality, robust, current LMI to help them navigate an increasingly complex labour market, making sense of the maze of opportunities available.

  • Clients / customers: LMI helps them to consider routes into and ways around and through the world of work, by raising aspirations, challenging stereotypes, increasing job knowledge and widening job knowledge. When applied to an individual’s circumstances it is essential for making a good career decision.
  • Career and employment professionals: LMI is essential for an understanding of the dynamic interplay between ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ in fast-changing local, regional, national and international labour markets. It also supports them in their task of supporting their clients / customers to develop and enhance career decision-making skills so that they can use the available LMI themselves to weigh-up their potential options as their career progresses.
  • Policy makers and planners: need LMI to develop strategies for the labour markets of the future.
  • Course designers and curriculum developers: use LMI to identify what  knowledge, and which skills, will be needed in the future. This includes where there is growth or decline in the number of job opportunities, the demographic profile of different parts of the labour market, the demographic profile of regional labour markets, the availability of ‘hard to fill’ vacancies, and competition for jobs in different areas and sectors, as well as the impact this has on wage and skill levels.
  • Researchers: use LMI in research and understanding economic and social development at national, regional and local levels.


Think about how you have used LMI in the past, or might do in the future:

  • What  was your main purpose for using it?
  • What sort of  LMI did you look for?
  • Was it easy to find?

Different types LMI and their sources

The following diagram attempts to capture some of the complexity related to the ways that employment and career guidance counselling practitioners will require access to different types and sources of LMI, sometimes overlapping, depending on their immediate requirements.

Image title

  • LMI to which practitioners give clients direct access (e.g. descriptions of jobs and training / education requirements)
  • LMI informing their practice (e.g. LMI relating to the equality of employment opportunities in different sectors / jobs)
  • LMI interpreted by the practitioner for the client (that is: What does this particular LMI mean for the particular circumstances of the client / customer? For example, if a client / customer wants to be a doctor, have they considered the length and / or cost of training required?)

Career and employment professionals typically feel extremely pressurised, with limited time to research information.  Consequently, LMI providers need to be aware that it must be easily accessible and available in a simple form and in accordance with the underpinning principles specified below:

  • Adherence to the core ethos of equality of opportunity for all and compliance with related legislation.
  • Commitment to impartiality, so that all LMI produced for the guidance/counselling process does not promote one sector, in a competitive manner, as superior to any other, or mask an economic decline.
  • Accessibility to potential users, addressing physical limitations as well as the ability to understand particular levels of complexity.
  • That the information will be robust, ensuring reliability, comprehensiveness and currency. 
  • That it should be relevant to the needs of practitioners in their guidance work with clients /customers.


Reflective Activity: 

Think about your use of LMI in practice:

  • Focusing on your most common source of LMI, how confident are you that it  complies to the underpinning principle above?


Further Resources: GMT interview with Jenny Bimrose: Labour market information: pivotal in careers advice and guidance

Why is LMI important?

Where can we find LMI?

Using LMI in Practice


Digital Agenda – Reflections and further resources


It’s now time to try to make sense of all the learning you have embarked upon during this module.

You could use a personal blog or just grab some paper, it may be helpful to begin by writing down:

3 things you learned or thought about as part of your studies in this module.

  • What worked best for you and why?

Now think about and write down answers to some or all of the following:

  • How might the new digital era affect you now and in the future?
  • What steps do you need to take to improve your digital literacy?
  • How might digitalisation affect your job or personal circumstances?
  • What issues have arisen that you feel you want to consider in more detail?

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Here is a collection of all of the references we have used in this module

Bimrose, J., Brown, A., Barnes, S-A., & Hughes, D. (2011) The role of career adaptability in skills supply. Wath-upon-Dearne:

BIS & DCMS (2016) Digital Skills for the UK Economy: A report by ECORYS UK, London: Department for Innovation and Department for Culture, Media and Sports, January 2016

COM (2010) 2020 final, Retrieved from:

Done, J. & Mulvey, R. (2016) Brilliant Graduate Career Handbook. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson available from Amazon

European Commission (2014). Digital Agenda for Europe: Rebooting Europe’s Economy. Brussels. Retrieved from:

Europe 2020 (2010). Communication from the Commission – EUROPE 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, Brussels, 3.3.2010

Hunter, A. J. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of resilience in adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 16, 172-179

Lengelle, R., Van der Heijden, B and Meijers, F. (In Press) The Foundations of Career Resilience,

Kettunen, J., Sampson, J. P., & Vuorinen, R. (2015). Career practitioners’ conceptions of competency for social media in career services. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 43, 43-56.

Lengelle, R., Van der Heijden, B and Meijers, F. (In Press) The Foundations of Career Resilience, Springer Books.

Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L. and Ng, E. S. W. (2015) ‘Resilience in the modern career’, Career Development International, 20(4), 363–383.

Metzl, E. S. and Morrell, M. A. (2008). ‘The role of creativity in models of resilience: Theoretical exploration and practical applications’, Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3(3), 303–318.

OCED (2015). Data-Driven Innovation: Big data for Growth and Well Being, Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from:

OECD (2016) Skills for a Digital World: 2016 Ministerial Meeting On The Digital Economy – Background Report, Mexico: Organisation of Cooperation and Economic Development, 21 -23rd June 2016. Retrieved from:

Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J. P., Duarte, M. E., Guichard, J. and Van Vianen, A. E. (2009) ‘Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 239–250; and Savickas, M. L. (2011) ‘Career Counseling’, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Springer Books. 41 Metzl, E. S. and Morrell, M. A. (2008). ‘The role of creativity in models of resilience: Theoretical exploration and practical applications’, Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3(3), 303–318.

The Guardian (2014) The truth about smart cities: ‘in the end, they will destroy democracy’ – 17th December 2014. Retrieved from:

UKCES (2014) The Future of Work: Jobs and Skills in 2030:  Evidence Report 84, Sheffield: Wath-upon-Dearne, February 2014

The Guardian (2014) The truth about smart cities: ‘in the end, they will destroy democracy’ – 17th December 2014. Retrieved from:

Other resources you may find useful

Eurofound report on the future of work –

Hughes, D., Bimrose, J., Brown, C., Goddard, T., and Kettunen, J. (2013). E-Careers Services Symposium: expanding the limits of design, technology, and practice. CDDA Communiqué, Sydney: Career Development Association of Australia.

International Symposium for Career development and Public Policy – Country Reports 2017. Visit:  and – See: The role of emerging technologies (2015)

Hughes, D. (2015) London Ambitions: Shaping a careers offer for all young Londoners, London Enterprise Panel & London Councils. This includes a recommendation for all young Londoners to have a digital portfolio. Available online:

International Perspectives

The Future of Work and Skills

Digital Jobs, Digital Workforce

Digital Jobseekers, Digital Employers

Reflection and Further Resources